Two kinds of deep breathing exercises

Yokogawa, M., et al. (2018). Comparison of two instructions for deep breathing exercise: non-specific and diaphragmatic breathing. Journal of physical therapy science30(4), 614-618. Full text.

Abstract. [Purpose] Breathing exercises are frequently prescribed to reduce pulmonary complications after abdominal and thoracic surgery. Appropriate instructions ensuring the integrity of the self-exercise are important. This study compared the effects of two instructions, focusing on non-specific breathing (NB) and diaphragmatic breathing (DB) patterns, respectively, on the ventilatory efficiency and work of breathing. 

[Subjects and Methods] The participants were healthy men (n=15) and women (n=15). Ventilatory parameters, heart rate, and autonomic nervous system activity were measured during natural and deep breathing phases performed under the two instructions (NB and DB), with the deep breathing phase following the natural breathing phase.

[Results] For both men and women, ventilatory efficiency was increased during deep breathing relative to natural breathing, regardless of the instructions. In women, the increment in ventilatory efficiency during deep breathing was greater under NB compared to that under DB. The work of breathing decreased during deep breathing in women under both instructions, but did not change in men under DB.

[Conclusion] Under NB instruction, deep breathing elicits similar or greater effects on ventilatory efficiency compared to that under DB instruction.


Burnout among hospital chaplains

Hotchkiss, J. T., & Lesher, R. (2018). Factors Predicting Burnout Among Chaplains: Compassion Satisfaction, Organizational Factors, and the Mediators of Mindful Self-Care and Secondary Traumatic Stress. Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling72(2), 86-98,

From the Abstract. This study predicted Burnout from the self-care practices, compassion satisfaction, secondary traumatic stress, and organizational factors among chaplains who participated from all 50 states (N = 534).

Chaplains serving in a hospital were slightly more at risk for Burnout than those in hospice or other settings. Organizational factors that most predicted Burnout were feeling bogged down by the “system” (25.7%) and an overwhelming caseload (19.9%).

The strongest protective factors against Burnout in order of strength were self-compassion and purpose, supportive structure, mindful self-awareness, mindful relaxation, supportive relationships, and physical care.

For secondary traumatic stress, supportive structure, mindful self-awareness, and self-compassion and purpose were the strongest protective factors. Chaplains who engaged in multiple and frequent self-care strategies experienced higher professional quality of life and low Burnout risk.

In the chaplain’s journey toward wellness, a reflective practice of feeling good about doing good and mindful self-care are vital. The significance, implications, and limitations of the study were discussed.

Postpartum women after mindfulness childbirth classes

Kantrowitz‐Gordon, I., et al. (2018). Experiences of Postpartum Women after Mindfulness Childbirth Classes: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, Online ahead of publication.

From the Abstract. The postpartum period can be a challenging experience for many women as they adjust to the physical and social changes after childbirth.

Mindfulness‐based interventions have been developed for stress reduction in a variety of health contexts, including pregnancy. These interventions provide strategies that may help new mothers handle the physical, emotional, and relationship challenges of the postpartum period and increase acceptance of postpartum physical changes and body image. 

Limited research has explored whether women use skills learned in prenatal mindfulness classes for the postpartum experience and parenting. The purpose of this study was to explore women’s experience with mindfulness in the year after childbirth.

. . .  Mindfulness skills helped class participants cope with physical and emotional challenges postpartum and fostered positive meaningful relationships with partners and newborns. Findings have implications for future research on mindfulness‐based interventions and the postpartum experience.

Adolescents with cronic diseases

Abujaradeh, H., et al. (2018). Mindfulness-Based Interventions among Adolescents with Chronic Diseases in Clinical Settings: A Systematic Review. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, Online ahead of publication.

Abstract. We aimed to determine the benefits/efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) implemented among adolescents with chronic diseases in clinical settings.

Nineteen eligible studies were included in this review. Fifteen studies included adolescents with psychiatric or pain disorders, and four included adolescents with a chronic physical disorders. Psychological outcomes and pain were examined in most studies with effect sizes for MBIs ranging from small to large.

MBI studies conducted in clinical settings mainly engaged adolescents with psychiatric or pain disorders. The effectiveness of MBIs on improving psychological outcomes were inconsistent. Large randomized trials are needed to examine the effectiveness of MBIs and should expand to include adolescents with chronic physical diseases.

Mindfulness-based art therapy

Hinchey, Liza M. “Mindfulness-Based Art Therapy: A Review of the Literature.” Inquiries Journal, vol. 10, no. 5, 2018. Full text.

Abstract. This review discusses Mindfulness-Based Art Therapy research to date. A literature review first explores mindfulness and art therapy independently, then investigates the current research on the combination of these two modalities used with clients with mental and emotional issues, physical illnesses, self-acceptance/self-esteem, and personal relationships. According to the current research, this therapeutic modality has shown to be beneficial for many populations.

Mindfulness training to reduce burnout in police officers (study protocol)

Trombka, Marcelo, et al., Study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of mindfulness training to reduce burnout and promote quality of life in police officers. BMC Psychiatry, 2018, vol. 18. no. 151, Full text.

Background. Police officers experience a high degree of chronic stress. Policing ranks among the highest professions in terms of disease and accident rates. Mental health is particularly impacted, evidenced by elevated rates of burnout, anxiety and depression, and poorer quality of life than the general public.

Mindfulness training has been shown to reduce stress, anxiety, burnout and promote quality of life in a variety of settings, although its efficacy in this context has yet to be systematically evaluated. Therefore, this trial will investigate the efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention versus a waitlist control in improving quality of life and reducing negative mental health symptoms in police officers.

Mindfulness-based treatment of addiction: the next wave of research

Garland, E. L., & Howard, M. O. (2018). Mindfulness-based treatment of addiction: current state of the field and envisioning the next wave of research. Addiction science & clinical practice, vol. 13, no1, pp. 14, Full text.

Abstract. Contemporary advances in addiction neuroscience have paralleled increasing interest in the ancient mental training practice of mindfulness meditation as a potential therapy for addiction. In the past decade, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been studied as a treatment for an array addictive behaviors, including drinking, smoking, opioid misuse, and use of illicit substances like cocaine and heroin.

This article reviews current research evaluating MBIs as a treatment for addiction, with a focus on findings pertaining to clinical outcomes and biobehavioral mechanisms. Studies indicate that MBIs reduce substance misuse and craving by modulating cognitive, affective, and psychophysiological processes integral to self-regulation and reward processing.

This integrative review provides the basis for manifold recommendations regarding the next wave of research needed to firmly establish the efficacy of MBIs and elucidate the mechanistic pathways by which these therapies ameliorate addiction. Issues pertaining to MBI treatment optimization and sequencing, dissemination and implementation, dose–response relationships, and research rigor and reproducibility are discussed.