Mitchell, J. C., Bach, P. A., & Cassisi, J. E. (2013). The Use of Structured Imagery and Dispositional Measurement to Assess Situational Use of Mindfulness Skills. PLOS ONE, 8(7), e70253. Full text.
Abstract: The recent proliferation of studies on mindfulness produced varying theoretical models, each based in part on how mindfulness is assessed. These models agree, however, that mindfulness encompasses moment-to-moment or situational experience.
Incongruence between dispositional and situational assessment would be problematic for theory and empirical research. In particular, it remains to be established whether situational measurement is an accurate method for mindfulness assessment and whether dispositional measures are able to accurately detect mindfulness skills in various situations.
The association between dispositional and situational mindfulness processes (i.e., situational attention awareness and emotion acceptance) was examined in two studies. In Study 1 (N = 148), independent groups who reported high and low levels of dispositional mindfulness skills were compared on a continuous measure of situational mindfulness skills. In Study 2 (N = 317), dispositional mindfulness questionnaires were used to predict situational use of mindfulness skills.
Results suggest not only that situational measures accurately detect use of mindfulness skills, but also that dispositional measures can predict one’s use of situational mindfulness skills. Findings from both studies were consistent across both positive and negative situations. Moreover, neither neuroticism nor extraversion was shown to have a moderating effect on the relationship between dispositional and situational use of mindfulness skills.