Hartelius, G. (2015). Body Maps of Attention: Phenomenal Markers for Two Varieties of Mindfulness. Mindfulness, 1-11.
Abstract. Mindfulness suffers from a lack of a satisfying consensus definition. This definitional challenge may be simplified by recognizing that there are at least two types of mindfulness: neo-traditional mindfulness, exemplified by Kabat-Zinn’s mindfulness-based stress reduction, consists of a shifted state of consciousness inherently carrying qualities associated with mindfulness; cognitive–behavioral mindfulness, exemplified by acceptance and commitment therapy and dialectical behavioral therapy, is achieved more through a shift toward cognitive processes that reflect similar qualities.
Other varieties of mindfulness exist within both Buddhist and cognitive–behavioral traditions, but these two may provide a starting point and a method for further articulation. The distinction between these two varieties of mindfulness is proposed based on analysis using somatic phenomenology, a state-specific approach to the study of body-located phenomenal markers of attention.
In this context attention is described in terms of where it comes from, relative to the body, rather than in terms of where it is directed, and state of consciousness is defined as a change in how attention is located within the body. In cognitive–behavioral mindfulness, attention is seated in the head and is directed outward from that location; in neo-traditional mindfulness, attention is seated in the belly and is directed outward from there. These two types of mindfulness represent similar qualities taking place in two different states of consciousness, reflected by these two discrepant attentional postures.