Mascaro, J. S., Darcher, A., Negi, L. T., & Raison, C. (2015). The neural mediators of kindness-based meditation: a theoretical model. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 109. To access full text, click here, then open PDF.
Abstract. Although kindness-based contemplative practices are increasingly employed by clinicians and cognitive researchers to enhance prosocial emotions, social cognitive skills, and well-being, and as a tool to understand the basic workings of the social mind, we lack a coherent theoretical model with which to test the mechanisms by which kindness-based meditation may alter the brain and body.
Here we link contemplative accounts of compassion and lovingkindness practices with research from social cognitive neuroscience and social psychology to generate predictions about how diverse practices may alter brain structure and function and related aspects of social cognition.
Contingent on the nuances of the practice, kindness-based meditation may enhance the neural systems related to faster and more basic perceptual or motor simulation processes, simulation of another’s affective body state, slower and higher-level perspective-taking, modulatory processes such as emotion regulation and self/other discrimination, and combinations thereof.
This theoretical model will be discussed alongside bestpractices for testing such a model and potential implications and applications of future work.
Berman, A. E., & Stevens, L. (2015). EEG manifestations of nondual experiences in meditators. Consciousness and Cognition, 31, 1-11. Abstract
Highlights • Nondual states of consciousness reflect the culminating meditation experience. • These resulting states are differentiated from method or type of practice. • EEGs were recorded during meditation and states of nonduality. • Results suggest nondual states are neurologically distinct from general meditation. • Differentiating method and state will contribute to a more comprehensive taxonomy.
The holistic experiential benefits of meditation among a widely ranging population have been well established within the empirical literature. What remain less clear are the underlying mechanisms of the meditative process. A large impediment to this clarity is attributable to the lack of a unified and comprehensive taxonomy, as well as to the absence of clear differentiation within the literature between method of practice and resulting state.
The present study discusses and then attempts to identify within our sample a theoretically universal culminating meditative state known as Nondual Awareness, which is differentiated from the method or practice state. Participants completed an in-lab meditation, during which neurological patterns were analyzed using electroencephalography (EEG).
Analyses indicated significantly higher EEG power among slower wave frequencies (delta, theta, alpha) during the reported nondual events. These events appear neurologically distinct from meditation sessions as a whole, which interestingly demonstrated significant elevation within the gamma range.